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Tar Sands Upgrader in Winter, Alberta Tar Sands © Garth Lenz

The Alberta Tar sands are Canada's single largest source of carbon. They produce about as much annually as the nation of Denmark. The refining of the tar-like bitumen requires more water and uses almost twice as much energy as the production of conventional oil. Particularly visible in winter, vast plumes of toxic pollution fill the skies. The Tar Sands are so large they create their own weather systems.