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Fig 3

Aerial view of Ilakaka (Madagascar) village and its “Banque Mondiale“ sapphire mining area. Besides some large excavations each small black dot represent a small, but often deep, gemstone mining pit. In many areas old unfilled mining pits are a serious source of environmental problems that directly affect the post-mining livelihoods of communities and ecology around former mining sites. Photo courtesy: Philippe Colombie / Relais de la Reine, 2000.