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What You See Is What You Taste, Says Scientist

Understanding how the eyes influence flavor perception may someday help thwart even the pickiest of eaters. (Credit: Scott Bauer, USDA)
Understanding how the eyes can influence flavor perception may someday help thwart even the most finicky eaters. (Credit: Scott Bauer, USDA)

When it comes to tasting, what you see is not always what you get. Speaking at the National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Terry E. Acree, Ph.D., announced his findings that the appearance of foods and drinks can make people “see” flavors before they actually taste anything, a phenomenon that can influence their flavor experiences, food likes, and dislikes. Agee is hopeful that further understanding of how the eyes factor into flavor perception can lead to the creation of healthy foods that will appeal to the pickiest of eaters.

The Eyes Have It

Traditionally, scientists have thought the tongue, nose, and brain dominated how people experience the flavors of the food, but Acree’s work reveals how the visual can forcefully come into play. “Years ago, taste was a table with two legs—taste and odor,” said Acree, who is with Cornell University’s Department of Food Science.

“Now we are beginning to understand that flavor depends on parts of the brain that involve taste, odor, touch and vision. The sum total of these signals, plus our emotions and past experiences, result in perception of flavors, and determine whether we like or dislike specific foods.”

Winning by a Nose

It’s well known that smell can override a person’s taste buds. Acree cited one popular experiment in which two groups of volunteers were asked to have a sip of plain water after smelling different foods. One group smelled sweet things like caramel and strawberries, while the other smelled non-sweet foods like bread, meat, or fish. For the sweet-smelling group, the plain water tasted sweet. But the water wasn’t sweet at all for the other group. (Related: Secrets of Smell: Different Nose Parts for Stinky, Sweet.)

When a glass of white wine was tinted red, people's eyes changed how they tasted the wine. The natural chemicals that give merlots and cabernets their flavors came to the front. (Credit: André Karwath, Wikimedia Commons)
When a glass of white wine was tinted red, people’s eyes changed how they tasted the wine. The natural chemicals that give merlots and cabernets their flavors came to the front. (Credit: André Karwath, Wikimedia Commons)

Bottle of Red? Bottle of White?

Acree described how people’s eyes can deceive them when it comes to different foods and beverages. In his talk, he described how looking at a glass of wine before smelling or tasting it affects how people experience the wine’s flavors.

Sauvignon Blanc, a popular white wine, has lots of flavors derived from natural chemicals. When people drink it, they may taste banana, passion fruit, bell pepper, and even a flinty, mineral taste. But if a flavorless food coloring is added to the Sauvignon Blanc to turn it a deep red, people’s taste perceptions change. They taste flavors associated with merlots or cabernets, wines known for their deep red colors.

Your Lying Eyes

While the role of the eyes is important, it does not dominate all of a person’s flavor perceptions. Acree pointed out that in different circumstances, other senses and parts of the brain can trump visual stimuli. For instance, certain foods—like hashes, chilies, and stews—can look like “vomit or feces” said Acree. But lots of people still eat (and enjoy!) these kinds of foods despite their unappetizing looks. So something beside the eyes is at work.

Acree posits a few different explanations. One is a person’s memory: If a person has strong, positive feelings associated with these foods, that pleasant past experience can trump the yucky-looking visual on the plate. Another explanation Acree puts forward is that people have a strong desire for new experiences and that input from the brain and nose may override the eyes in these situations.

By getting to the heart of how people’s eyes, nose, brain, and tongue interact when eating, Acree believes that eventually we’ll be able to develop healthy foods that are more appealing to a broader range of people—especially kids and picky adults.


  1. HUMSS 11th grader and handsome
    February 10, 2:23 am

    Thanks national geo for this awesome article. I just have one question for you. Who wrote this article?

  2. Annabelle
    December 8, 2016, 9:04 pm

    This is the best! I love food!

  3. Seventh Grade Scientest
    November 15, 2016, 9:55 pm

    I found this article very useful for an upcoming event I am projecting on. The facts that our human senses override our natural instinct is truly fascinating!

  4. girl
    October 11, 2016, 6:58 pm


  5. girl
    October 11, 2016, 6:58 pm

    i agree….What??? i don’t get this at all!!!

  6. random 7th grader
    mesa az
    September 16, 2016, 3:47 pm

    this really helped me with my 7th grade science fair thank you

  7. Eliza
    August 1, 2016, 6:19 am

    In one of your sentences you rote Acree as Agee and that was strange and confusing for me.

  8. Coolkid21327
    Don't worry about it
    June 8, 2016, 11:01 pm

    Yes I have a question. When I’m watching TV and see food in a commercial or in a movie (even if I have never had it before) I can tast it. When I taste it it’s not in my whole mouth it’s more in like the back of my mouth. And it the most specific thing ever to. And if I go and try the food it tastes exactly like it did when I first saw it.

  9. Jharr2119
    New Bern, NC
    February 29, 2016, 2:20 pm

    This article is great, Helped my further my knowledge for my junior project on the appearance to food and the affect of it on customers in a restaurant setting. I would recommend this site and article to anyone with similar question

  10. po po
    Spencer, Iowa
    December 16, 2015, 1:56 pm

    legit bruh

  11. Claudia
    Baton Rouge
    October 9, 2015, 2:58 pm

    This is kind of boring

  12. Claudia
    October 9, 2015, 2:49 pm

    This is great

  13. tree
    September 28, 2015, 12:59 pm

    This artical really helped me especially with my science fair project on taste perception

  14. tikitikitemponosarembocherryberrypipperrypembow hallee
    March 13, 2015, 9:07 am

    this didnt help m e at all.

  15. j
    February 9, 2015, 3:51 pm


  16. tyjahnay
    November 20, 2014, 1:59 pm

    like it

  17. RM
    Savannah, GA
    October 17, 2014, 4:22 pm

    Nope, not true. When I first tried skittles candy I thought they were an m&m copy, so I expected chocolate, I got fruit, to this day I hate skittles.

  18. Joe Mamma
    Sugarcandy Mountain, Afghanistan
    August 26, 2014, 11:27 am

    Dis be some pretty dope info imma go share it wit da homies

  19. John Welk
    April 8, 2014, 2:40 pm

    Very interesting, i thik i wil now get very cheap food and beverages and colour it to look like expensive food and beverages. this will be good and i will save money

  20. Ayesha Khan
    April 23, 2013, 4:52 pm

    Wonderful article with logical analysis. The factors mentioned can lead to so many unanswered queries. Human anatomy which at times is extremely complex to comprehend perceive things in such a strange manner, which is difficult to ascertain. The subtle reactions that are happening both in the biological system, and also in the brain are somehow correlated. The coordination of the significant faculties are triggered by the neurotransmitters , which still remains a phenomena. But the explanation by the analyst provides enough evidence, that how unpredictable, and at the same time quiet predictable our behaviors are—This is why the humans are considered to be the most inteligent among species—

  21. jrryr
    April 23, 2013, 4:13 pm

    I agree