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Five New “Flying Monkeys” Identified in Amazon

Five species of acrobatic monkey that have long flown under the scientific radar have been named in South America.

These “flying monkeys,” or sakis, are notoriously shy and hard to study in their vast Amazon rain forest homes, where they’re known to sail quickly from treetop to treetop.

Photo of the Pithecia pithecia monkey.
A male white-faced saki, the most common saki species, is pictured in a captive setting in the Netherlands in 2008. Part of Marsh’s work included studying white-faced sakis and their relationships to other sakis. Photograph by Russell A. Mittermeier

Scientists had previously identified five species of the 8-pound (4-kilogram) primates, known for their colorful facial hair and bushy coats that they puff out when threatened. (Also see “Pictures: Bushy-Bearded Titi Monkey Discovered.”)

But after nearly ten years of analyzing saki museum specimens, photographs, and animals in the field, behavioral ecologist Laura Marsh and colleagues have finally cracked the code of the Pithecia genus, which is now expanding to 16 species, including 5 new to science.

The newbies include Cazuza’s saki, Mittermeier’s Tapajós saki, Rylands’ bald-faced saki, Pissinatti’s bald-faced saki, and Isabel’s saki, according to the study in the July issue of the journal Neotropical Primates, which is published by the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group and Conservation International.

Three of the newly named species were previously thought to be subspecies, while another three were thought to be variants of known species.

Monkey Business

Marsh, director and cofounder of the Global Conservation Institute in Santa Fe, New Mexico, first became intrigued with saki monkeys—which resemble “fluffy, kinda uglyish cats that run on the tops of trees”—about a decade ago in Ecuador.

The scientist quickly realized that some of the animals she saw weren’t in her field guide—and her curiosity eventually took her to museums in 17 countries, where she examined more than 800 skins and 690 skulls. She also studied hundreds of high-resolution photographs of the primates before reworking the saki family tree. (Also see “New Snub-Nosed Monkey Discovered, Eaten.”)

Photo of a Pithecia albicans monkey.
The buffy saki, pictured, occurs only in Brazil. The new study examined specimens of buffy sakis. Photograph by Russell A. Mittermeier

Part of the challenge in deciphering sakis is the remarkable diversity in color and shape within a single species: A juvenile male has similar coloration to an adult female, for instance. What’s more, some females have protruding clitorises, so in museum specimens “it looks like a penis,” Marsh said.

And flying monkeys are stealthy: “They vocalize in grunts, chirps, whistles, and low calls, but can be exceptionally quiet when sneaking away from a perceived threat such as a field researcher,” Marsh wrote in the study.

Marilyn Norconk, a professor at Kent State University in Ohio who studies sakis in Guyana, said the new research is the first comprehensive study of these elusive seed-eaters since the 1980s. (See National Geographic’s photo gallery of other monkeys.)

“I’d been expecting this for some time,” said Norconk, who wasn’t involved in the new research. “[The study is] providing the framework with a lot of new species names and some geographic localities.”

But there’s plenty more to learn. Marsh didn’t do genetic analyses of sakis, for instance, and “in terms of biology and behavior of this group, we still don’t know a whole lot,” said Norconk.

Studying Sakis

The next step will be more expeditions to investigate the newly named sakis’ populations—and vulnerability to extinction.

Norconk noted that in Guyana, the white-faced saki seem to adapt well to habitats that have been affected by humans, and its populations are thriving.

For this species, which is more well studied, “I think they’re a good-news species—let’s understand more about them and why they’re doing so well, even in areas that are disturbed.”

But the status of sakis in other parts of their South American range is unknown. For instance, with parts of the Amazon “completely chewed up” by agriculture and development, Marsh suspects that the habitats of some of the flying monkeys may be dwindling. (Read “Last of the Amazon” in National Geographic magazine.)

That’s why her study is so crucial: “If we can’t name it, we can’t save it. If we’re calling everyone one species and it’s really ten different things, you have just lost part of the biodiversity on Earth,” she said.

“I feel like we got the road map—now it’s time to get to work.”

Follow Christine Dell’Amore on Twitter and Google+.


  1. Thomas
    August 30, 5:00 am

    C’est fabuleux de retrouver des espèces , cependant pour celle-ci cela peut devenir dangereux car leurs plus grand prédateur ces l’homme. Je suis admirative pour votre travail de recherche.

  2. detrick
    flagstaff AZ
    September 28, 2016, 8:27 pm

    love your work

  3. Mohamed Sekou Camara
    west africa
    April 2, 2015, 5:41 am

    why the nature in brazil is existing? in africa we do not care about the nature.

  4. Emma
    September 8, 2014, 3:47 pm

    It is so nice to know that there is still people out there that still care about animals.

  5. Fabulousness Man
    Top of a Rainbow
    September 4, 2014, 11:34 am

    Thanks for introducing me to this fabulous species! Cute

  6. Chantelle L
    September 2, 2014, 5:35 pm

    Great to know that there are still species out there!!

  7. Richard Wm. Narlian
    San Marcos,Calif.
    September 2, 2014, 3:05 am

    ginny holmes-they speak highly of you.

  8. BillybobJr3rd
    September 1, 2014, 5:27 pm

    In reference Soledayo’s comment: No.
    If there was a black hole in our solar system, let along on Earth, we would all be dead.

  9. Susan B.
    September 1, 2014, 12:46 pm

    It is wonderful to know that there are still animals in the wild that have not been “touched” by humans.

  10. GatorALLin
    United States
    September 1, 2014, 12:14 pm

    Can we switch from calling these flying monkeys to bad hairday Monkeys…or roidFurMonks or something that matches their crazy look…. ….silly/off

  11. soledayo
    August 31, 2014, 9:58 am

    is there really a black hole on earth?

  12. soledayo
    August 31, 2014, 9:56 am

    new specie averytime,God take control

  13. kapil sharma
    india (mumbai)
    August 31, 2014, 9:36 am

    Would like to learn and know more about nature and animal I like to watch national geographic channel and discovery channel every day

  14. kapil sharma
    mumbai (india)
    August 31, 2014, 9:33 am

    Would always like to learn and know more about nature and animals

  15. ginny holmes
    phoeniz, AZ
    August 31, 2014, 8:54 am

    Weird looking; but, cute animal

  16. Apollo
    Kohima, Nagaland, India
    August 31, 2014, 6:57 am

    Great job Christine, I would love to see more of your good work about these flying monkeys in the FB.

  17. lisa
    August 29, 2014, 7:12 pm

    Thanks for sharing, it’s great to see new species and learn about these fabulous creatures. Keep up the good work your doing.