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Bumpy-Headed Reptile Fossils Discovered

New fossils of an ancient reptile called Bunostegos akokanensis indicate that it probably wasn’t winning any prehistoric beauty contests.

“Imagine a cow-sized, plant-eating reptile with a knobby skull and bony armor down its back,” Linda Tsuji, leader of a new study on the critter, said in a statement. (Also see “Pictures: Oldest Reptile Embryos Discovered.”)

bumpy-headed reptile picture
Bunostegos akokanensis is seen in an artist’s rendering. Illustration courtesy Marc Boulay

But the specimens, discovered in northern Niger, are giving the University of Washington’s Tsuji and colleagues a glimpse into the Middle and Late Permian periods (266-252 million years ago), when all of Earth’s landmasses were joined into a single supercontinent called Pangaea. (See a prehistoric time line.)

B. akokanesis belonged to a group of  large reptiles called pareiasaurs that were common across Pangaea. The new Niger specimens show that species in the genus Bunostegos were related to older, more primitive pareiasaurs, according to an analysis published June 25 in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.

Their ancient position in the pareiasaur family tree suggested that the Bunostegos lineage was isolated for millions of years. And since Bunostegos are some of the knobbiest pareiasaurs, this also meant that the bumpy heads that characterized other lineages in this group evolved independently of each other.

Since Bunostegos didn’t intermix with other pareiasaurs, the team reasoned that the genus had to be geographically isolated. Their theory: That an extreme desert in what’s now northern Africa essentially sequestered the creatures in one region.

During their isolation, the reptiles evolved all kinds of new adaptations, including their skin-covered horns. Over time, the horns became the most bulbous of all the pareiasaurs. (Also see “New Horned Dinosaurs Found—Among Littlest Known.”)

The study didn’t say what this “cranial ornamentation” did for the animal, but it certainly made for a bizarre-looking creature.


  1. David
    July 15, 2013, 6:01 pm

    We evolved our brains just for beauty contests?

  2. Syam
    July 4, 2013, 6:54 am

    This abnormality of bones might caused disease?

    July 3, 2013, 3:08 pm


  4. Sean Elwell
    July 2, 2013, 2:02 pm

    what if this is actually evidence of a widespread disease or infection? In appearance it reminds of a wood burl one might see on a modern tree. A burl is a viral infection that slowly kills or retards the development of a tree. A tree can host a burl for many decades. The appearance of a burl is a large lumpy mass. They can grow to many hundreds of pounds. Wondering if this find might actually be a dinosaur equivalent of a burl.

  5. Tim
    Rochester, NY
    July 2, 2013, 5:56 am

    What a great find!

  6. Brittney Hocut
    United States
    July 2, 2013, 2:03 am


  7. himanshu negi
    July 2, 2013, 1:38 am

    imagine if it can replace cow for milk.

  8. rohan daugles
    sri lanka
    July 2, 2013, 1:28 am

    thank 4 ur send photo’s

  9. Libby Baez
    California, USA
    July 2, 2013, 1:04 am

    It actually looks like it has the head of a kimono dragon. It’s features are very pronounced and what I noticed the most on this particular beast is the front end of the snout.

  10. sifredo
    El Salvador
    July 2, 2013, 12:50 am

    woo que interesante un nuevo integrante descubierto espero que revelen datos de su estilo de vida

  11. DC Matthews
    so cal , usa
    July 2, 2013, 12:40 am

    funny looking wiskers.